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Here is a short overview of whole cultivation method:
There are several things you should consider before start onion farming. i.e. The Climate/weather and temperature, soil condition, choosing a place of onion cultivation.
After stabilizing the perfect setup you have to plant onion in the field. With fertilizers depending on your soil and crop demands. Organic fertilizer is a great choice here.
The next step will be caring. Cultivating vegetables and herbs is easy as well as demanding. But a good care can ensure better production which requires better knowledge about the crop demands. We share a standard guideline for onion farmers.
Fertilizing the plant and control pests disease is sometimes a challenge for onions cultivator. So be careful in this stages.
Finally, Harvesting it from the field and storing them in an appropriate way.
Right now, There may be a lot of questions in your mind. Starting with how to and when to. Let’s find those answers below.
There are a lot of varieties of onion. Some are incredibly big (nearly .5kg) and some are small( 50 gram). Now the question is which one you should for your onion farm.
You have to choose varieties depending on the season. And how much sunlight you can get in that period of time. Based on the sunlight availability we can divide them into three main categories. Let’s learn about those three categories and the best varieties:
Grows where 10-12 hours of sunlight. Suitable for winter seasons.
Varieties: Georgia Sweet, Sweet Red, Granex, Red Creole, Red Burgandy, White Bermuda, Vidalia, and Southern Belle, Texas Super Sweet, Texas Sweet White etc.
This types can grow in any season and requires 12-14 hour of sunlight.
Varieties: Cabernet, Candy Onion, Red candy apple etc.
It requires 14-16 hour of sunlight. Thrives well in summer. The best varieties are Alisa crag, White sweet Spanish, Copra, Walla Walla Sweet, Paterson, Yellow Sweet Spanish etc.
The ideal temperature for onion farming is in between 13-25°C (55-75°F) for Asia and between 8°C – 30°C (46°F-86°F.) for two America.
Unfortunately, onion does not grow well in places with heavy snow or heavy rainfall. Though you can try to grow ginger indoor or when the temperature is in between 13-25°C.
So you should sow or transplant onion at the beginning of the winter season.
Before you planting onion you should learn about the best soil condition and other relevant factors which affect onion farming.
Red loam and sandy loam are highly preferable for onion farming. No matter if you don’t have those types as a soil. Scientifically you can improve your soil by using organic materials. Though it is not recommended in most of the cases. In fact, we do not suggest to do so.
Onions are mostly grown in any soil but the soil should be loose, well-drained, and should have plenty of nitrogen.
Now, determine the soil condition measure the pH and other soil nutrients. The ideal range of soil pH for growing best onion is in between 5.5 and 6.5.
The other factors which can affect the production along with soil are:-
All of those tools are not required for every farmers or farm. The modern onion farming tools are:-
There exist a wide range of variations of onion, depending on their shape, size, and color.
Generally, Red, yellow and white are the three groups of onion widely cultivated across the world.
But luckily, there are three methods of planting onion you may apply transplants, sets, or seeds.
A less popular alternative to direct seeding is planting sets. Sets are a little onion bulb that is planted rather than seed to produce a mature bulb. Sets are immature bulbs turn the earlier year and offer the most farmers choices.
They are the simplest to plant, the shortest time to harvest, and the limited complication of the disease. However, they are more prone to bolting than seedlings or transplants. Roughly 15 years back, business cultivators tried different things with using sets and observed direct seeding to be more successful.
Transplants, which are seedlings begun in the current maturing season and sold in groups, are available in nurseries or other marketplaces.
They usually frame good quality bulbs within a short period of time (60 days or less). They are subject to diseases. Farmers Choice is slightly limited in that case. So this is suggested for quick growing.
Farming onions from seeds allow a great benefit of a wide choice in cultivars. The main difficulty of starting from seeds is, it will take up to 4 months to mature your crop. In cold areas, the farmer will need to begin their onion seedlings in indoors. Otherwise outdoor.
Remarkably tiny seed such as pelleted grain requires being sown inside.
Larger Medium seed/ grains require being sown on the outside.
A proper management of watering & fertilization gives you double production. As onion is a very sensitive plant. It requires frequent treatments of fertilizer.
Onion also farms with different crops like ginger, tomato. After cultivating ginger you can Grow baby corn.
Each onions need about 1 inch of water per week.
Onions are more sensorial to insects, weeds, and diseases than other vegetable crops. Every one generally expects a disease-and insect-free crop.
To overcome the excessive damage, scatter-plant onions throughout the field. It will discourage the adult flies from setting their eggs at the roots of the plants if you put a thin layer of sand around onion bulbs.
Thrips overwinter in weeds, maintaining the garden clear. Help you to reduce insect populations. Covering a studious mulch, such as aluminum flake, among rows may be the efficient way to deflect the thrips. The early you can discover that problem, you can spray bulbs with Beauveria bassiana or spinosad to combat thrips.
All these issues are made by fungi in the soil and can be eliminated by rotating crops and by working humus within the onion bed to accommodate good drainage.
If you harvest young onion just pull them up few weeks after plantation if you want them to use as “spring onion” or “scallions” as there is no ideal measurement, just pull them up when they are big enough to suit you.
To store onions select a cool, dry, well-ventilated location, such as a garage or cellar. The ideal temperature for storing onion is at 40 to 50 degrees F.
This is not the end of onion farming, there are lots more to explore about onion farming, to know the different methods of onion plantation, or the business plan of onion farming, the unique technique of onion cultivation, and more stay tuned with us.